2 edition of Spectral reflectance and radiance characteristics of water pollutants found in the catalog.
Spectral reflectance and radiance characteristics of water pollutants
C. T. Wezernak
by U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, for sale by the National Technical Information Service in Washington, Springfield, Va
Written in English
|Statement||C. T. Wezernak, R. E. Turner, and D. R. Lyzenga ; prepared by Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. for Langley Research Center.|
|Series||NASA contractor report ; NASA CR-2665, NASA contractor report -- NASA CR-2665.|
|Contributions||Turner, Robert E., Lyzenga, D. R., Environmental Research Institute of Michigan., Langley Research Center., United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||xiii, 218 p. :|
|Number of Pages||218|
5 The total radiance, (Lt) recorded by a remote sensing system over a waterbody is a function of the electromagnetic energy from four sources: Lt = Lp + Ls + Lv + Lb L ihh di d d b l i f h d lli l()d Water Surface, Subsurface Volumetric, and Bottom Radiance • p is the t eradiance recorded by a sensor resu lting from the downwelling solar (Esun) and sky (Esky) radiation. Spectral Reflectance. The spectral radiance can be calculated using the gain and offset values for each band supplied in the leader file for the TM data. The digital number is multiplied by the gain value and the offset added to obtain spectral radiance. The calculation of reflectance takes into account the position of the sun in the.
Reflectance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy. It is the fraction of incident electromagnetic power that is reflected at an interface. The reflectance spectrum or spectral reflectance curve is the plot of the reflectance as a function of wavelength. Spectral radiance is the amount of energy received at the sensor per. iar with the basic spectral characteristics of green vegetation, soil, and water. This in turn. helps determine which regions of the spectrum are most important for distinguishing. these surface types. (3) Spectral Reflectance of Green Vegetation. Reflectance of green.
For many applications, radiance, reflectance, and apparent reflectance can be used interchangibly. However, since reflectance is a property of the target material itself, you will get the most reliable (and repeatable) vegetation index values using reflectance. Apparent reflectance is adequate in . Spectral signatures of materials are defined by reflectance or absorption as a function of wavelength. NIR spectroscopy measures the reflectance of infrared light wavelengths for samples and the shapes of the soil spectra correspond to mineral composition, organic matter, clay content, water, iron form and amount, salinity, and particle size.
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Spectral reflectance characteristics of water pollutants and water bodies were compiled using the existing literature. Radiance calculations were performed at satellite altitude for selected.
Spectral reflectance and radiance characteristics of water pollutants. Washington: National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; Springfield, Va.: for sale by the National Technical Information Service, (OCoLC) Material Type: Government publication, National government publication: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors.
Spectral reflectance characteristics of water pollutants and water bodies were compiled using the existing literature. Radiance calculations were performed at satellite altitude for selected illumination angles and atmospheric conditions. spectral reflectance characteristics of water pollutants and water bodies using information derived from the existing literature; and to convert the spectral reflectance data so compiled into radiance data at satellite altitude for selected illumination angles and atmospheric.
performed to explore the relationships between spectral reflectance and water optically active constituents in coastal environments. The results suggested that water reflectance spectra in estuarine waters are the results of complex interaction s among phytoplankton pigments, total suspended solids, and CDOM.
Here the depth argument of "in air" indicates that is evaluated using the water-leaving radiance and in the air, just above the water surface. The remote-sensing reflectance is a measure of how much of the downwelling radiance that is incident onto the water surface in any direction is eventually returned through the surface into a small solid angle centered on a particular direction, as.
Reflectance behaviour of soils under different field conditions was analysed and the spectral reflectance curves for different soil types were obtained.
Soil samples pertaining to each test site were analysed for mechanical composition, physioco-chemical properties to identify their relationship with soil by: FIGURE Spectral reflectance signatures of healthy vegetation, dry soil, gray grass litter, water, and snow.
Soils are complex mixtures of a number of mineral and organic constituents and have spectral signatures unlike those of vegetation. Reflectance characteristics of the Caribbean Sea were analysed with a high spectral resolution radiometer.
Reflectance spectra show a typical coloration of tropical waters with maxima at the blue region of the electromagnetic by: 9. Spectral reflectance and water quality In marine systems, where only plant pig- ments and their derivatives dominate water- column optical properties, remote estima- tion of chlorophyll with the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) is both theoretically Cited by: In northeastern Brazil, large swaths of once-productive soils have been severely degraded by soil salinization, but the true extent of the damage has not been assessed.
Emerging remote sensing technology based on hyperspectral analysis offers one possibility for large-scale assessment, but it has been unclear to what extent the spectral properties of soils are related to salinity by: 6. Laboratory reflectance spectra in the –μm region of bound water, water‐mineral mixtures, mineral grains on frost, and frost on minerals are presented.
The materials used in this study are montmorillonite, kaolinite, beryl, Mauna Kea red cinder, and black by: reflectance, they measure radiance. The pattern of radiance about the spectral characteristics of certain surface materials (spectral signatures).
The spectral signature is the information that is used in classifying pixels in an image. Because of this primary role of spectral signatures, effortsFile Size: 1MB. Apparent Spectral Properties. Apparent spectral properties provide the observable signature for hyperspectral remote sensors and are measurable quantities.
These include spectral reflectance, transmittance, and emissivity. Spectral reflectance is defined here as the ratio of spectral irradiance reflected off a material to spectral Cited by: 1.
4 Factors affecting spectral reflectance measurements Introduction Spectral measurements need to be accurate and precise representations of the target material but there are a variety of factors that affect the quality of spectral measurements. Careful consideration must beFile Size: 1MB.
The factors that affect the variability in reflectance of a water body are depth of water, materials within water and surface roughness of water.
Spectral Reflectance of Soil The majority of radiation on a surface is either reflected or absorbed and little is transmitted. The characteristics of soil that determine its reflectance properties are.
diffuse reflectance properties of terrain features. Spectral Reflectance - Albedo Water Body Complex Spectral Response from a Water Body a d e. 4 Spectral reflectance curves (Spectral Signatures) for different natural surfaces in Visible & NIR wavelengths Spatial and Temporal EffectsFile Size: KB.
Radiance is the amount of radiation coming from an area. To derive a radiance image from an uncalibrated image, a gain and offset must be applied to the pixel values. These gain and offset values are typically retrieved from the image's metadata or received from the data provider.
Spectral reflectance characterization of shallow lakes from the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands with field and airborne hyperspectral data. International Journal of Cited by: The Manual on Advanced Remote Sensing and GIS is for both the Trainees and the Analysis using uncorrected data assumes that the radiance of vegetation, soil, water and other objects of interest have sufficiently different reflectance characteristics for differentiation and thatFile Size: 4MB.
study, suggesting a complex origin of these bio-optical properties. Spectral Features of Water Reflecta nce R(λ) The water reflectance R(λ) measured at the Patuxent River also displayed a high degree of variation both in magnitude and shape over the visible and NIR region as the results of largely uncorrelated bio-optical Size: KB.Landsat atmospheric correction and surface reflectance retrieval algorithms are not ideal for water bodies due to the inherently low level of water leaving radiance, and the consequential very low signal to noise ratio.
Similarly, surface reflectance values greater than can be encountered over bright targets such as snow and playas.This page links to the extensive data files of the surface reflectance factors described in Mobley () and Mobley ().The first paper discusses the problems inherent in estimating the remote-sensing reflectance from measurements of the sky and ocean radiance made from just above the sea surface.
That paper used Cox-Munk sea surfaces and unpolarized ray tracing to compute factors, which.